For over twenty years we have studied the Manhattan Prong, principally in Westchester County. Field geology- the mapping of rocks and geologic structures, together with petrography- has been the springboard of our work, though we have been supplementing these with electron-microprobe studies of mineral assemblages, whole-rock geochemical analyses, and radiometric age determinations.
In recent years we have proposed new interpretations of the metamorphic, stratigraphic, and tectonic histories of the Manhattan Prong see, for instance, our abstracts for the Long Island Geologists conferences in, and Middle Proterozoic time. The Fordham Gneiss dominantly consists of metamorphosed igneous rocks, which range from felsic, through mesocratic, to mafic in composition.
Our geochemical studies show that most of these rocks have compositions indicative of a volcanic-arc origin. It certainly pays to live in a place where dating activities, such as To help America's singles find love, WalletHub compared more than U. Several recent U-Pb studies of zircons from metaigneous rocks of the Fordham indicate primary crystallization in the time period Ma to 1. Next, a major collision took place, triggering the late Ottawan phase of the Grenvillian orogeny; the rocks were deformed, deeply buried, and underwent high-grade granulite-facies metamorphism.
Late Neoproterozoic time.
From Quebec to Virginia, rift basins formed and basaltic rocks erupted at c. However, over the past 12 years, we have been mapping a complex package of rock that lies, stratigraphically, over the top of the Fordham basement and below the Cambro-Ordovician Inwood Marble, and whose age is therefore constrained as Neoproterozoic.
We have informally named this stratigraphic unit the Ned Mountain formation. The Ned Mountain formation is lithologically varied, and is divided into several members, illustrated on Figure 3.
Although the Ned Mountain formation was originally defined on the basis of its stratigraphic relationships and its particular lithologic characteristics, we have been testing our interpretation by whole-rock chemical analyses and zircon age determinations. We have found that all the components of the Ned Mountain formation are linked together by the special suite of mafic rocks amphibolites that they contain; these amphibolites have many chemical characteristics in common, which serve to distinguish them from the Fordham Gneiss and from most other rock units in the region.
They share these characteristics, however, with rift-related Late Neoproterozoic-aged metabasites found elsewhere in the Appalachians.
All of these Late Neoproterozoic mafic rocks are chemically similar to basalts found on oceanic islands, such as Iceland. Basalts on these islands are thought to arise from deep-seated mantle plumes, rather than from shallow-level depleted mantle of the kind that fuels volcanism at mid-oceanic ridges.
We have proposed, therefore, that a mantle plume prompted rifting along eastern North America during Late Neoproterozoic time.
This plume, we suggest, eventually opened the Iapetus Ocean, in the same way that the Iceland mantle plume triggered the opening of the northern Atlantic Ocean. We interpret the felsic rocks long known as Yonkers gneiss as part of the Ned Mountain formation. Yonkers gneiss was ly interpreted as a component within the Fordham Gneiss Figure 2. However, our recent work has shown that Yonkers is everywhere stratigraphically or structurally distinct from the Fordham Gneiss Figure 3that it is more regionally extensive than ly realized Stop 1and that it must have a blanket-like overall geometry, commonly being only a few hundred feet thick but cropping out for tens of miles along strike.
Yonkers has a concordant, stratiform character, and therefore must be a metavolcanic not plutonic body. Zircons from the Yonkers gneiss in Westchester County have been dated at Ma Rankin and others,compatible with Late Neoproterozoic rifting elsewhere.
Our chemical data also show that the Yonkers is an A-type granitoid, a rock type strongly associated with continental rifting, and that it is compositionally distinct from the felsic components of the Fordham Gneiss and from Paleozoic granites of the Manhattan Prong.
In the northeastern Manhattan Prong, we find schists sitting on Fordham Gneiss that strongly resemble the Manhattan Schist. We ased these rocks to the Ned Mountain formation Metawacke member; Figure 3and now have a zircon date confirming their Late Neoproterozoic age at c. The Manhattan Schist is an allochthon, a detached sheet of rock Figure 2and its age and origin have been unclear. Our new data show that amphibolites in the Manhattan Schist are chemically identical to those found in the Ned Backpage Escorts La Dolores PR formation, confirming that the two units are related to each other.
We interpret the Ned Mountain formation and Manhattan Schist as age-equivalent, correlative units, and infer that the Manhattan Schist Stop 3 represents a deeper-water facies than most of the Ned Mountain formation Figure 3.
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